The long-term mean (31-year mean) surface heat fluxes over the Japan Sea are estimated by the bulk method using the most of the available vessel data with the resolution of 1° × 1°. The long-term annual mean net heat flux is about -53 W m-2 (negative sign means upward heat flux) with the annual range from 133 W m-2 in May to -296 W m-2 in December. The small gain of heat in the area near Vladivostok seems to indicate the existence of cold water flowing from the north. In that area in winter, the mean loss of heat attains about 200 W m-2, and the Bowen's ratio is over the unity. The largest insolation occurs in May in the Japan Sea, and the upward latent heat flux becomes the largest in November in this area. The heat flux of Haney type is also calculated, and the result shows that the constant Q1 has the remarkable seasonal and spatial variation, while the coefficient Q2 has relatively small variation throughout all seasons. Under the assumption of constant volume transport of 1.35 × 106 m3s-1 through the Tsugaru Strait, the long-term averages of the volume transport through the Tsushima and Soya Straits are estimated to be about 2.20 and 0.85 × 106 m3s-1 from the result of the mean surface heat flax, respectively.
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