Heat and mass transfer in semiconductor melts during single-crystal growth processes

Koichi Kakimoto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


The quality of large semiconductor crystals grown from melts is significantly affected by the heat and mass transfer in the melts. The current understanding of the phenomena, especially melt convection, is reviewed starting from the results of visualization using model fluids or silicon melt, and continuing to the detailed numerical calculations needed for quantitative modeling of processing with solidification. The characteristics of silicon flows are also reviewed by focusing on the Coriolis force in the rotating melt. Descriptions of flow instabilities are included that show the level of understanding of melt convection with a low Prandtl number. Based on hydrodynamics, the origin of the silicon flow structure is reviewed, and it is discussed whether silicon flow is completely turbulent or has an ordered structure. The phase transition from axisymmetric to nonaxisymmetric flow is discussed using different geometries. Additionally, surface-tension-driven flow is reviewed for Czochralski crystal growth systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1827-1842
Number of pages16
JournalJournal of Applied Physics
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1995
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Physics and Astronomy(all)


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