Gut microbiome of indonesian adults associated with obesity and type 2 diabetes: A cross-sectional study in an asian city, yogyakarta

Phatthanaphong Therdtatha, Yayi Song, Masaru Tanaka, Mariyatun Mariyatun, Maisaroh Almunifah, Nancy Eka Putri Manurung, Siska Indriarsih, Yi Lu, Koji Nagata, Katsuya Fukami, Tetsuo Ikeda, Yuan Kun Lee, Endang Sutriswati Rahayu, Jiro Nakayama

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Indonesia is a developing country facing the national problem of the growing obesity and diabetes in its population due to recent drastic dietary and lifestyle changes. To understand the link between the gut microbiome, diet, and health of Indonesian people, fecal microbiomes and metabolomes of 75 Indonesian adults in Yogyakarta City, including obese people (n = 21), type 2 diabetes (T2D) patients (n = 25), and the controls (n = 29) were characterized together with their dietary and medical records. Variations of microbiomes showed a triangular distribution in the principal component analysis, driven by three dominant bacterial genera, namely Bacteroides, Prevotella, and Romboutsia. The Romboutsia-driven microbiome, characterized by low bacterial diversity and high primary bile acids, was associated with fat-driven obesity. The Bacteroides-driven microbiome, which counteracted Prevotella but was associated with Ruminococcaceae concomitantly increased with high-carbohydrate diets, showed positive correlation with T2D indices but negative correlation with body mass index. Notably, Bacteroides fragilis was increased in T2D patients with a decrease in fecal conjugated bile acids, particularly tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a farnesoid X receptor (FXR) antagonist with anti-diabetic activity, while these features disappeared in patients administered metformin. These results indicate that the gut microbiome status of Indonesian adults is differently associated with obesity and T2D under their varied dietary habits.

Original languageEnglish
Article number897
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Microbiology
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Virology


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