Phenotypic differences among breeding lines that introduce the same superior gene allele can be a barrier to effective development of cultivars with desirable traits in some crop species. For example, a deficient mutation of the Protein Disulfide Isomerase Like 1–1 (PDIL1-1) gene can cause accumulation of glutelin seed storage protein precursors in rice endosperm, and improves rice flour characteristics and food processing properties. However, the gene must be expressed to be useful. A deficient mutant allele of PDIL1-1 was introduced into two rice cultivars with different genetic backgrounds (Koshihikari and Oonari). The grain components, agronomic traits, and rice flour and food processing properties of the resulting lines were evaluated. The two breeding lines had similar seed storage protein accumulation, amylose content, and low-molecular-weight metabolites. However, only the Koshihikari breeding line had high flour quality and was highly suitable for rice bread, noodles, and sponge cake, evidence of the formation of high-molecular-weight protein complexes in the endosperm. Transcriptome analysis revealed that mRNA levels of fourteen PDI, Ero1, and BiP genes were increased in the Koshihikari breeding line, whereas this change was not observed in the Oonari breeding line. We elucidated part of the molecular basis of the phenotypic differences between two breeding lines possessing the same mutant allele in different genetic backgrounds. The results suggest that certain genetic backgrounds can negate the beneficial effect of the PDIL1-1 mutant allele. Better understanding of the molecular basis for such interactions may accelerate future breeding of novel rice cultivars to meet the strong demand for gluten-free foods.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Agronomy and Crop Science
- Soil Science
- Plant Science