Genesis of the Mamut porphyry copper deposit, Sabah, East Malaysia

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


The Mamut deposit of Sabah, East Malaysia, is a porphyry type Cu-Au deposit genetically related to a quartz monzonite ("adamellite") porphyry stock associated with upper Miocene Mount Kinabalu plutonism. The genesis of the Mamut deposit is discussed based on petrology of the intrusives in the Mount Kinabalu area combined with ore-and alteration-petrography, fluid inclusion and sulfur isotope studies. Groundmass of the adamellite porphyry at Mamut is rich in K which suggests vapor transport of alkaline elements during the mineralizing magmatic process, while the groundmass of the post-ore "granodiorite" porphyry at Mamut contains small amounts of normative corundum suggesting depletion in alkaline elements at the root zone of the magma column. Subdendritic tremolitic amphibole rims on hornblende phenocrysts in the Mamut adamellite porphyry suggest interaction between the mineralizing magma and the exsolved fluids. Occurrences of clinopyroxene microphenocrysts and pseudomorphic aggregates of shredded biotite and clinopyroxene after hornblende phenocrysts in the barren intrusives imply lower water fugacity and decreasing in water fugacity, respectively. Compositional gap between the core of hornblende phenocrysts and the tremolitic amphibole rims and those in the groundmass of the Mamut adamellite porphyry suggests a decrease in pressure. Higher XMg (=Mg/(Mg+Fe) atomic ratio) in the tremolitic amphibole rims in the Mamut adamellite porphyry compared to those of the barren intrusions suggests high oxygen fugacity. High halogen contents of igneous hydrous minerals such as amphiboles, biotite and apatite in the Mamut adamellite porphyry suggest the existence of highly saline fluids during the intrusion and solidification of the mineralizing magma. Fluid inclusions found in quartz veinlet stockworks are characterized by abundant hypersaline polyphase inclusions associated with subordinate amounts of immiscible gaseous vapor Both Cu and Au are dispersed in disseminated and quartz stockwork ores. Chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite as well as magnetite are the principal ore minerals in the biotitized disseminated ores. Primary assemblage of intermediate solid solution (iss) and pyrrhotite converted to the present assemblage of chalcopyrite and pyrrhotite during cooling. Subsequent to biotitization, quartz veinlet stockworks formed associated with retrograde chlorite alteration. The Cu-Fe sulfides associated with stockwork quartz veinlet are chalcopyrite and pyrite. Overlapping Pb and Zn and subsequent Sb mineralizations were spatially controlled by NNE-trending fractures accompanying the phyllic and advanced argillic alteration envelope. Sulfur isotopic composition of ore sulfides are homogeneous (about +2‰) throughout the mineralization stages. These are identical to those of the magmatic sulfides of Mount Kinabalu adamellitic rocks.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1-23
Number of pages23
JournalResource Geology
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2000
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geology
  • Geochemistry and Petrology


Dive into the research topics of 'Genesis of the Mamut porphyry copper deposit, Sabah, East Malaysia'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this