Generation of Two-Dimensional Kinesthetic Illusion in Ankle Joint with Vibration Stimulation

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)


The artificial sensation of walking can be applied to enhancing the self-efficacy and self-agency of persons whose motions are assisted by human assist-robots. When mechanical vibratory stimulation is applied to muscle tendons, a phenomenon called "Kinesthetic Illusion (KI)"is induced. The stimulated muscle feels as if it is being extended, even though it is not moving when KI is induced. If this phenomenon can be generated and controlled at the ankle joint, an artificial gait sensation can be generated. It is known that a variety of muscles such as Gastrocnemius (GA), Tibialis Anterior (TA), Peroneus Longus (PL), and Tibialis Posterior (TP) act on gait. Therefore, it would be possible to enhance gait sensation and generate two-dimensional gait sensations, such as in the sagittal and anterior forehead planes if KI is generated for those muscles. This paper investigates a basic study of KI characteristics in the two-dimensional direction at GA, TA, PL, and TP. The experiment results revealed the possibility of KI generation in the two-dimensional direction. Moreover, it is found that vibration stimulation at 30Hz-40Hz is adequate for generating KI in all muscles. The results of this study demonstrate the possibility of generating a two-dimensional gait sensation.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2022 World Automation Congress, WAC 2022
PublisherIEEE Computer Society
Number of pages6
ISBN (Electronic)9798888314449
Publication statusPublished - 2022
Event2022 World Automation Congress, WAC 2022 - San Antonio, United States
Duration: Oct 11 2022Oct 15 2022

Publication series

NameWorld Automation Congress Proceedings
ISSN (Print)2154-4824
ISSN (Electronic)2154-4832


Conference2022 World Automation Congress, WAC 2022
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Antonio

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Control and Systems Engineering


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