We isolated a cDNA clone encoding the human prostaglandin (PG) E receptor EP4 subtype and examined the gene expression in human blood cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that the EP4 gene is expressed at a high level in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at lower levels in cultured human blood cell lines, THP-1 and U937 (monocytoid cell lines), MOLT-4 and Jurkat (T-cell lines), and Raji (B-cell line). To examine regulation of the EP4 gene expression in the immune system, we studied the effects of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) on these cell lines. Gene expression was upregulated in THP-1, U937, and Raji cells by PMA, and was downregulated in MOLT-4 and Jurkat cells. In THP-1 cells the effects of PMA were further analyzed, and the upregulation of the EP4 gene was shown to be followed by an increase in PGE2 binding sites and in PGE2-induced cAMP accumulation. In the striking contrast, other PGE receptor subtypes (EP1, EP2 and EP3) and other prostanoid receptors (IP and DP) were shown not to be upregulated by PMA. Therefore, this is the first demonstration of a highly specific upregulation of the EP4 subtype in THP-1 cells treated with PMA, suggesting the importance of the EP4 subtype in the immune system. In the present study we also clarified that EP4 gene expression is regulated differently among human monocytoid and lymphoid lineage cells, thus leading to the better understanding of the regulatory mechanisms for the human EP4 gene expression in the immune system.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Molecular Medicine
- Drug Discovery