Fundamental strategy for creating VLS grown TiO2 single crystalline nanowires

Fuwei Zhuge, Takeshi Yanagida, Kazuki Nagashima, Hideto Yoshida, Masaki Kanai, Bo Xu, Annop Klamchuen, Gang Meng, Yong He, Sakon Rahong, Xiaomin Li, Masaru Suzuki, Shoichi Kai, Seiji Takeda, Tomoji Kawai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


A single crystalline TiO2 nanowire grown by a size and position controllable vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) method is a promising candidate to control and design the physical and chemical properties for various TiO 2-based applications. However, creating TiO2 nanowires by VLS has been a challenging issue due to a difficulty on controlling and understanding the complex material transport events across three phases. Here we propose a fundamental strategy to create a TiO2 single crystalline nanowire by the VLS mechanism. We show that a VLS growth of TiO2 nanowires can emerge intrinsically only within a quite narrow range of material flux, which is a sharp contrast to typical VLS oxides including MgO, SnO 2, In2O3, and ZnO, whose nanowires are easily grown by VLS with much wider ranges of material flux. We reveal that a condensation of Ti atoms at a vapor-solid interface, which is detrimental for VLS, is responsible to limit a window of material flux for TiO2 nanowires. In addition, we found that our rutile-TiO2 nanowires preferentially grow along 〈001〉 direction, which interestingly differs from a typical 〈110〉 oriented growth of TiO2 nanowires formed by the vapor-phase method. The present approach based on a control of material flux provides a foundation to tailor VLS grown TiO2 nanowires based on a scientific strategy rather than a rule of thumb.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)24367-24372
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Physical Chemistry C
Issue number45
Publication statusPublished - Nov 15 2012
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • General Energy
  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films


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