Flux-Boosted Sulfide Crystal Growth: Growth of CuInS2 Crystals by NaCl-InCl3 Evaporation

Masaaki Kurihara, Fumitaka Hayashi, Kosuke Shimizu, Hajime Wagata, Toshiyuki Hirano, Yasuhiro Nakajima, Kunio Yubuta, Shuji Oishi, Katsuya Teshima

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8 Citations (Scopus)


Copper-indium-gallium-sulfide-selenide (CIGSSe) is used in photovoltaic cells and photocathodes, because of its tunable optoelectronic properties, but the fabrication of CIGSSe samples usually requires a multistage process under vacuum. Herein we used a flux growth technique for the sulfide system and achieved efficient flux growth of idiomorphic copper-indium-sulfide CuInS2 crystals of size ∼5 μm from a NaCl-InCl3 flux under mild conditions at ambient pressures. We first examined the flux growth conditions such as holding temperature, solute concentration, and holding time for growing highly crystalline CuInS2 crystals. A moderate holding temperature (∼550 °C) and high solute concentration (∼70 mol %) yielded idiomorphic pure CuInS2 crystals. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy showed clear electron diffraction spots, indicating that the resultant CuInS2 crystals had a highly crystalline, intrinsic tetragonal crystal structure. Thermogravimetry-differential thermal analysis showed that the CuInS2 crystals grew efficiently during flux evaporation at 550 °C, at which the flux evaporation degree reached ∼81%. The CuInS2 crystal growth mode is discussed based on the characterization results.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1195-1199
Number of pages5
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2 2016
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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