Various indolylmaleimides (IMs) were synthesized, and their fluorescence (FL) and chemiluminescence (CL) were measured. The substitution at the 2-position of the indole ring and the 3- or 4-position of the maleimide moiety caused an obvious change in the FL and CL of the IMs. An almost on-off switching of the FL of the IMs was observed. The intramolecular charge transfer from the indole moiety to the maleimide moiety occurred in 3-(1H-3-indolyl)-2,5-dihydro-1H-2,5-pyrroledione. In the FL of the IMs, CASPT2 calculations showed deprotonation of the NH group of the indole ring and the maleimide moiety at the excited state. The C=C bond in the maleimide moiety was needed for strong CL in the IMs without substitution at the 2-position of the indole ring. The relationships between the FL or CL properties and the structures of the IMs were clarified. These results provide significant information on the rational design of IMs as FL and CL probes.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Physics and Astronomy
- Physical and Theoretical Chemistry