Importance: Myopic maculopathy is a leading cause of irreversible visual impairment worldwide. Moreover, the burden of myopic maculopathy has been expected to increase owing to the rising prevalence of myopia globally. However, there is limited epidemiologic evidence regarding the incidence of and risk factors for myopic maculopathy. This study from Japan, with a relatively high prevalence of myopia, could provide valuable information related to these issues. Objective: To estimate the incidence of myopic maculopathy and its risk factors in Hisayama in southwestern Japan. Design, Setting, and Participants: A population-based prospective cohort study in a Japanese community in Hisayama, Japan. The study included a total of 2164 residents 40 years or older who had no myopic maculopathy at the baseline eye examination in 2012 and underwent follow-up eye examinations in 2017. Main Outcomes and Measures: Incidence of myopic maculopathy. The grades of myopic maculopathy were categorized based on the criteria of the Meta-analysis of Pathologic Myopia Study Group classification system. Results: The mean (SD) age of the study participants was 62.4 (10.9) years, and the proportion of men was 42.5% (920 participants). In the follow-up examination in 2017, 24 patients developed myopic maculopathy. The 5-year cumulative incidence of myopic maculopathy was 1.1% (95% CI, 0.6-1.5) overall, 1.4% (95% CI, 0.6-2.2) for men, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.4-1.4) for women. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that older age (per 1 year; odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% CI, 1.01-1.11) and longer axial length (per 1 mm; OR, 2.94; 95% CI, 2.19-3.95) were associated with incident myopic maculopathy. Conclusions and Relevance: Twenty-four study participants (1%) developed myopic maculopathy during the 5-year study period, which is much higher than the rate in a previous study on a Chinese population. We also confirmed that aging and longer axial length were independent and significant risk factors for myopic maculopathy. These findings should be reviewed among various populations in other parts of the world.
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