First results of undersea muography with the Tokyo-Bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector

Hiroyuki K.M. Tanaka, Masaatsu Aichi, Cristiano Bozza, Rosa Coniglione, Jon Gluyas, Naoto Hayashi, Marko Holma, Osamu Kamoshida, Yasuhiro Kato, Tadahiro Kin, Pasi Kuusiniemi, Giovanni Leone, Domenico Lo Presti, Jun Matsushima, Hideaki Miyamoto, Hirohisa Mori, Yukihiro Nomura, László Oláh, Sara Steigerwald, Kenji ShimazoeKenji Sumiya, Hiroyuki Takahashi, Lee F. Thompson, Yusuke Yokota, Sean Paling, Masaki Satoh, Dezső Varga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

10 Citations (Scopus)


Tidal measurements are of great significance since they may provide us with essential data to apply towards protection of coastal communities and sea traffic. Currently, tide gauge stations and laser altimetry are commonly used for these measurements. On the other hand, muography sensors can be located underneath the seafloor inside an undersea tunnel where electric and telecommunication infrastructures are more readily available. In this work, the world’s first under-seafloor particle detector array called the Tokyo-bay Seafloor Hyper-Kilometric Submarine Deep Detector (TS-HKMSDD) was deployed underneath the Tokyo-Bay seafloor for conducting submarine muography. The resultant 80-day consecutive time-sequential muographic data were converted to the tidal levels based on the parameters determined from the first-day astronomical tide height (ATH) data. The standard deviation between ATH and muographic results for the rest of a 79-day measurement period was 12.85 cm. We anticipate that if the length of the TS-HKMSDD is extended from 100 m to a full-scale as large as 9.6 km to provide continuous tidal information along the tunnel, this muography application will become an established standard, demonstrating its effectiveness as practical tide monitor for this heavy traffic waterway in Tokyo and in other important sea traffic areas worldwide.

Original languageEnglish
Article number19485
JournalScientific reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General


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