Fabrication of three-dimensional interconnected porous blocks composed of robust carbonate apatite frameworks

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In scaffolds used for bone regeneration, osteogenic ability increases and mechanical strength decreases with increasing porosity. To ensure both mechanical strength and osteogenesis, an optimal pore architecture is necessary. Porous glass has high porosity and high mechanical strength, as it is framed with a rigid interconnected silica network and void interspaces in the silica network. In this context, based on the porous structure of glass, we fabricated porous blocks composed of carbonate apatite (CO3Ap), which is the major component of human bone mineral, with both high mechanical strength and high porosity. To fabricate the CO3Ap blocks, first, calcite-polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) mixture granules were prepared. Next, the calcite-PMMA granules were allowed to join together in the mold by fusing PMMA, resulting in the formation of porous blocks composed of interconnected calcite-PMMA granules. Next, PMMA was thermally removed and the resultant interconnected calcite granules were partially sintered. Finally, the composition of the interconnected granules was converted from calcite to CO3Ap in a dissolution-precipitation reaction. Consequently, CO3Ap blocks with a continuous pore architecture were successfully fabricated. The porosity and diametral tensile strength were controllable within the range of 60‒70% and 1.0‒1.5 MPa, respectively, by filling the space between the calcite-PMMA granules. As these values are suitable for clinical use, the porous CO3Ap blocks have potential applications as scaffolds for bone regeneration.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)20045-20049
Number of pages5
JournalCeramics International
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - Aug 15 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Surfaces, Coatings and Films
  • Materials Chemistry


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