Experiments on energy‐efficient evaporative cooling systems for poultry farm application in Multan (Pakistan)

Khawar Shahzad, Muhammad Sultan, Muhammad Bilal, Hadeed Ashraf, Muhammad Farooq, Takahiko Miyazaki, Uzair Sajjad, Imran Ali, Muhammad I. Hussain

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

20 Citations (Scopus)


Poultry are one of the most vulnerable species of its kind once the temperature‐humidity nexus is explored. This is so because the broilers lack sweat glands as compared to humans and undergo panting process to mitigate their latent heat (moisture produced in the body) in the air. As a result, moisture production inside poultry house needs to be maintained to avoid any serious health and welfare complications. Several strategies such as compressor‐based air‐conditioning systems have been implemented worldwide to attenuate the heat stress in poultry, but these are not economical. Therefore, this study focuses on the development of low‐cost and environmentally friendly improved evaporative cooling systems (DEC, IEC, MEC) from the viewpoint of heat stress in poultry houses. Thermodynamic analysis of these systems was carried out for the climatic conditions of Multan, Pakistan. The results appreciably controlled the environmental conditions which showed that for the months of April, May, and June, the decrease in temperature by direct evapo-rative cooling (DEC), indirect evaporative cooling (IEC), and Maisotsenko‐Cycle evaporative cooling (MEC) systems is 7–10 °C, 5–6.5 °C, and 9.5–12 °C, respectively. In case of July, August, and September, the decrease in temperature by DEC, IEC, and MEC systems is 5.5–7 °C, 3.5–4.5 °C, and 7–7.5 °C, respectively. In addition, drop in temperature‐humidity index (THI) values by DEC, IEC, and MEC is 3.5–9 °C, 3–7 °C, and 5.5–10 °C, respectively for all months. Optimum temperature and relative humidity conditions are determined for poultry birds and thereby, systems’ performance is thermodynamically evaluated for poultry farms from the viewpoint of THI, temperature‐humid-ity‐velocity index (THVI), and thermal exposure time (ET). From the analysis, it is concluded that MEC system performed relatively better than others due to its ability of dew‐point cooling and achieved THI threshold limit with reasonable temperature and humidity indexes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2836
Pages (from-to)1-22
Number of pages22
JournalSustainability (Switzerland)
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Computer Science (miscellaneous)
  • Environmental Science (miscellaneous)
  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law
  • Computer Networks and Communications
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment


Dive into the research topics of 'Experiments on energy‐efficient evaporative cooling systems for poultry farm application in Multan (Pakistan)'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this