The park management (PM) that evolved from the park-renewal project based on Installation-Management Permission (IMP) in Tennoji Park, a major urban park in Osaka City, Japan is evaluated herein. The PM of Tennoji Park is composed of 'hard' and 'soft' tasks. The process and characteristics of the hard tasks, i.e., the park-renewal project including the construction of a significant landmark, the lawn plaza (named 'TEN-SHIBA') and convenience facilities with various service functions are analyzed. The details and outcomes of the soft tasks including cleaning, security, and lawn/planting management plus events held on the TEN-SHIBA plaza are also clarified. The PM results and financial effects of the introduction of IMP in TEN-SHIBA are evaluated based on both the park users' characteristics obtained by a questionnaire, an observation survey of the park users, and a data analysis of the track record. Based on a comparison with Sumiyoshi Park, an urban park similar to TEN-SHIBA but without the introduction of IMP, it was found that young females were the predominant users of TEN-SHIBA, and the average staying time on the lawn plaza was 2 min. longer than that in Sumiyoshi park. Together these results suggest the effectiveness of IMP for PM based on the TEN-SHIBA experience. It also appears that placing a plaza in the center of a park and providing facilities and various events by private business operators can generate profits; this might be effective for future PM hard tasks, while various and continuous soft task efforts remain essential.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nature and Landscape Conservation
- Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law