Environmentally friendly growth of well-developed LiCoO2 crystals for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries using a NaCl flux

Katsuya Teshima, Sunhyung Lee, Yusuke Mizuno, Hikaru Inagaki, Masato Hozumi, Keiichi Kohama, Kunio Yubuta, Toetsu Shishido, Shuji Oishi

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51 Citations (Scopus)


High quality LiCoO2 crystals, useful as cathode material for lithium-ion rechargeable batteries, were successfully grown at a holding temperature of 800-1000 °C using the NaCl flux cooling method. The morphology, structure, size uniformity, and crystallinity of the obtained LiCoO2 crystals were obviously dependent on the growth conditions, such as the holding temperature and the starting composition. Well-developed, highly crystalline LiCoO2 crystals were first grown at a holding temperature of 900 °C from a NaCl flux. The grown LiCoO2 crystals had a hexagonal barrel-shaped structure with well-developed {001}, {104}, {101}, and {102} faces. On the basis of the powder X-ray diffraction data, the lattice parameters of the crystals were determined as a = 2.816 and c = 14.077 Å. These values agree approximately with those from the literature (a = 2.816 and c = 14.052 Å). The average crystal size was about 1.4 μm, which is a relatively small size when compared to previous reports. Transmission electron microscopy images indicate that the LiCoO2 crystals were of very good crystallinity. It was confirmed that the charge and discharge capacities of the lithium-ion rechargeable batteries containing the grown LiCoO2 crystals were 138 and 130 mAh•g-1, respectively, values that correspond to the available capacity of 137.5 mAh•g-1. The discharge capacity of the grown LiCoO2 crystal is greater at 10 C than that of commercially available crystals.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4471-4475
Number of pages5
JournalCrystal Growth and Design
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - Oct 6 2010
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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