Enhancement of fluoride immobilization in apatite by Al3+additives

Keiko Sasaki, Shugo Nagato, Keiko Ideta, Jin Miyawaki, Tsuyoshi Hirajima

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6 Citations (Scopus)


Immobilization of fluoride (F) in apatite using Ca(OH)2as a mineralizer in the presence of phosphate is known to be accompanied by a stagnation period. This is caused by the formation of hydroxyapatite and/or fluoroapatite (HAp/FAp) on the surface of Ca(OH)2, which inhibits the dissolution of Ca(OH)2. Al3+additives effectively eliminated the delay period, leading to the rapid formation of apatites by suppressing the formation of CaCO3. Zeta potential measurements clearly showed that increasing the quantity of Al3+additives caused not only a decrease in the initial surface charge but also a decrease in the rate of the surface charge of the solid residues during the reaction, indicating that Al3+additives enhanced the formation of HAp/FAp. 27Al-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies of the solid residues indicated that the predominant coordination number of Al was always hexagonal ([6]Al) and that the fraction of [6]Al increased with an increase in the molar ratio of F/Al in the solid residues, suggesting that the stable AlF6 3−complex was easily incorporated into the apatites. In addition, transmission electron microscope- energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (TEM-EDX) revealed a uniform distribution of Al in the apatites, which suggests that in the initial stages of the reaction, free Al3+ions contribute to the formation of apatite crystal seeds independent of Ca(OH)2particles, resulting in the efficient growth of apatites containing F. This result is helpful for the treatment of F-bearing industrial wastewaters in practical applications by using an Al-bearing Ca source, such as ground-granulated blast-furnace slag.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)284-292
Number of pages9
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • General Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • General Chemical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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