In this work, energetic-ion confinement and loss due to energetic-ion driven magnetohydrodynamic modes are studied using comprehensive neutron diagnostics and orbit-following numerical simulations for the Large Helical Device (LHD). The neutron flux monitor is employed in order to obtain global confinement of energetic ions and two installed vertical neutron cameras (VNCs) viewing different poloidal cross-sections are utilized in order to measure the radial profile of energetic ions. A strong helically-trapped energetic-ion-driven resistive interchange mode (EIC) excited in relatively low-density plasma terminated high-temperature state in LHD. Changes in the neutron emission profile due to the EIC excitation are clearly visualized by the VNCs. The reduction in the neutron signal for the helical ripple valley increases with EIC amplitude, which reaches approximately 50%. In addition to the EIC experiment, orbit-following simulations using the DELTA5D code with EIC fluctuations were performed to assess the energetic-ion transport and loss. Two-dimensional temporal evolution results show that the neutron emissivity at the helical ripple decreases significantly due to the EIC. The rapid reduction in neutron emissivity shows that the helically-trapped beam ions immediately escape from the plasma. The reduction in the VNC signals for the helical ripple valley and the total neutron emission rate increase with increasing EIC amplitude, as observed in the experiment. Calculated line-integrated neutron emission results show that the profile measured by VNC1 has one peak, whereas the profile measured by VNC2 has two peaks, as observed in the experiment. Although the neutron emission profile for VNC2 has a relatively wide peak compared with the experimental results, the significant decrease in neutron signal corresponding to the helical ripple valley was successfully reproduced.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Nuclear and High Energy Physics
- Condensed Matter Physics