Endoscopic classification of gastric varices

Makoto Hashizume, Seigo Kitano, Hirohiko Yamaga, Nobuhiro Koyanagi, Keizo Sugimachi

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155 Citations (Scopus)


Endoscopic observations of gastric varices in 124 patients were classified according to form, location, and color. Form was classified into three types: tortuous (F1), nodular (F2), and tumorous (F3). Location was classified into five types: anterior (La), posterior (Lp), lesser (LI) and greater curvature (Lg) of the cardia, and fundic area (Lf). Color was white (Cw) or red (Cr). Glossy, thin-walled focal redness on the varix was defined as red color spot (RC spot). Stepwise logistic regression analysis for multivariate adjustments was performed for all of the endoscopic covariates, and four risk factors (La, Lg, F2, RC spot) that affect bleeding from gastric varices were independently identified. This classification should aid in assessing gastric varices observed by fiberoptic endoscopy and help design appropriate treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)276-280
Number of pages5
JournalGastrointestinal endoscopy
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1990
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology


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