Efficient Deniably Authenticated Encryption and Its Application to E-Mail

Fagen Li, Di Zhong, Tsuyoshi Takagi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


Confidentiality and authentication are two main security goals in secure electronic mail (e-mail). Pretty good privacy (PGP) and secure/multipurpose internet mail extensions (S/MIME) are two famous secure e-mail solutions. Both PGP and S/MIME use digital envelope to provide message confidentiality and digital signature to provide message authentication. However, these methods have the following two weaknesses: 1) digital signature provides non-repudiation evidence of sender that is not desired in some e-mail applications and 2) efficiency is low, since these methods use two kinds of public key cryptographic primitives: public key encryption and digital signature. To overcome the above two weaknesses, we introduce a new concept called deniably authenticated encryption that can achieve confidentiality, integrity, and deniable authentication in a logical single step. We first propose a deniably authenticated encryption scheme and prove its security in the random oracle model. Then, we design a secure e-mail protocol using the proposed deniably authenticated encryption scheme. The deniable authentication property protects senders' privacy.

Original languageEnglish
Article number7499859
Pages (from-to)2477-2486
Number of pages10
JournalIEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - Nov 2016

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Computer Networks and Communications


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