Effects of magnesium oxide on pharmacokinetics of L-dopa/carbidopa and assessment of pharmacodynamic changes by a model-based simulation

Yushi Kashihara, Yui Terao, Kensaku Yoda, Takeshi Hirota, Toshio Kubota, Miyuki Kimura, Shunji Matsuki, Masaaki Hirakawa, Shin Irie, Ichiro Ieiri

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7 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Magnesium oxide (MgO) is often co-prescribed with L-dopa/carbidopa (LDCD) to improve constipation in Parkinson’s disease patients. The mixing of L-dopa and MgO has been shown to degrade L-dopa; however, there is no interaction study on humans. We proposed mechanisms for the interaction between LDCD and MgO and conducted pharmacokinetic studies on rats and humans. To assess pharmacodynamic changes with the MgO treatment, we applied a model-based meta-analysis (MBMA). Methods: The effects of MgO on the stabilities of L-dopa and carbidopa were evaluated in in vitro studies. We conducted pharmacokinetic interaction studies of MgO and LDCD on rats and healthy volunteers. A clinical study was conducted with an open-label, non-randomized, single-arm, and two-phase study. In MBMA, we constructed a population pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model of L-dopa and predicted the effects of the MgO treatment on the pharmacodynamics of L-dopa. Results: In vitro results suggested that carbidopa was unstable under alkaline pH conditions. Reductions in plasma LDCD concentrations were observed after oral-MgO/oral-LDCD, but not in oral-MgO/i.v.-LDCD treatments in rats, suggesting that the gastrointestinal tract is an interaction site. A healthy volunteer study showed that MgO was also associated with significant decreases of 35.3 and 80.9% in the AUC 0–12 of L-dopa and carbidopa, respectively. A model-based simulation suggested that the MgO treatment was undesirable for the effectiveness of L-dopa. Conclusions: This is the first study to show a clear pharmacokinetic interaction between LDCD and MgO in humans. Further investigations to confirm the effects of MgO on the pharmacodynamics of L-dopa are required.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)351-361
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 6 2019

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmacology
  • Pharmacology (medical)


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