Effect of trace phosphorus on the dross formation in tin-copper-nickel wave solder

Quy Tran Xuan, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh, Stuart D. McDonald, Kazuhiro Nogita

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

3 Citations (Scopus)


Additions of trace elements such as Phosphorus (P) and Germanium (Ge) are common practice to improve the oxidation resistance in Tin-Copper (Sn-Cu) wave solder systems, however, little insights are available regarding their combined role. In this article, the effect of trace P (<100ppm), in the presence of Ge (<100ppm), on the phase composition and microstructure of Sn-Cu-Ni wave solder dross is studied using various techniques including Synchrotron XRPD, SEM, FIB and TEM. We find that P additions, in the presence of Ge, result in the formations of SnO, SnO2 and Ni2SnP intermetallic in the dross whereas only SnO is present in the P-free equivalent. The crystal structure of Ni2SnP is identified as orthorhombic with the space group Pnma. Based on the findings, it is evident that P not only influences the oxidation state of tin oxides but also reduces the concentration of effective Ni in the alloys via the formation of Ni2SnP intermetallic.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationElectronic Packaging Interconnect Technology
EditorsKazuhiro Nogita, Mohd Arif Anuar Mohd Salleh, Mohd Mustafa Al Bakri Abdullah, Muhammad Faheem Mohd Tahir, Liyana Jamaludin
PublisherTrans Tech Publications Ltd
Number of pages5
ISBN (Print)9783035713244
Publication statusPublished - 2018
Externally publishedYes
EventElectronic Packaging Interconnect Technology Symposium, EPITS 2017 - Fukuoka, Japan
Duration: Nov 1 2017Nov 2 2017

Publication series

NameSolid State Phenomena
Volume273 SSP
ISSN (Print)1012-0394
ISSN (Electronic)1662-9779


OtherElectronic Packaging Interconnect Technology Symposium, EPITS 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics


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