Effect of cooling rate on the intermetallic layer in solder joints

Keith Sweatman, Tetsuro Nishimura, Stuart D. McDonald, Kazuhiro Nogita

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

2 Citations (Scopus)


While it has long been known that the Cu 6Sn 5 intermetallic that plays a critical role in the reliability of solder joints made with tin-containing alloys on copper substrates exists in two different crystal forms over the temperature range to which electronics circuitry is exposed during assembly and service, it has only recently been recognized that the change from one form to the other has implications for solder joint reliability. Under equilibrium conditions the change from the hexagonal to monoclinic form occurs in the cooling solder joint at 186°C. However, cooling rates after common commercial soldering processes are typically faster than the rate that would permit complete transformation under such equilibrium conditions. In this paper the authors report a study of the effect of cooling rates on Cu 6Sn 5 crystals. Cooling rates from 200°C ranged from 10°C/minute to 100°C/minute and the effect of isothermal ageing at intermediate temperatures was also studied. The extent of the phase transformation after each regime was determined using synchrotron X-ray diffraction. The findings have important implications for the manufacture of solder joints and their in-service performance.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationIPC APEX EXPO 2012
Number of pages26
Publication statusPublished - 2012
Externally publishedYes
EventIPC APEX EXPO 2012 - San Diego, CA, United States
Duration: Feb 28 2012Mar 1 2012

Publication series



Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego, CA

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Effect of cooling rate on the intermetallic layer in solder joints'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this