Effect of added NaHCO3 on the basic properties of apatite cement

Youji Miyamoto, Taketomo Toh, Kunio Ishikawa, Tetsuya Yuasa, Masaru Nagayama, Kazuomi Suzuki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

28 Citations (Scopus)


Alternation of a composition of set apatite cement (AC) from carbonate-free apatite (CO3-free AP) to carbonate apatite (CO3-AP) may accelerate replacement of the set AC with bone because CO3-AP can be dissolved much faster than CO3-free AP in the weak acidic solution produced by osteoclasts. In this investigation, NaHCO3 was added to the AC component and the effects of added NaHCO3 on cement-setting behavior and on set mass were studied as an initial step for the fabrication of AC, which can be replaced with bone faster than current AC. When NaHCO3 was added to AC, the resultant set mass contained CO3. Although not all CO3 was incorporated in the set AC, the amount of CO3 incorporated into the set AC increased with the amount of added NaHCO3. Powder X-ray diffraction analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectrometer measurements revealed the formation of B-type CO3-AP. The setting time measured in an incubator at 37°C and 100% relative humidity slowed from 30 to 45 min, indicating that NaHCO3 has an inhibitory effect on AP formation. The diametral tensile strength of the set AC decreased significantly with the addition of NaHCO3. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed that fine crystals were formed in the set AC when NaHCO3 was added to AC. As a result, the crystallinity indices of the set AC measured using X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy decreased with an increase in the amount of added NaHCO3. The dissolution rate of set AC in weak acid, pH 5.5, increased with the amount of added NaHCO3. We concluded that the formation of B-type CO3-AP and the resulting faster dissolution of set AC in weak acidic solution is preferable for the faster replacement of set AC with bone even though the decreased diametral tensile strength value is a shortcoming.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)311-319
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Biomedical Materials Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 5 2001
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biomaterials
  • Biomedical Engineering


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