Ubiquitin is a small protein used for posttranslational modification and it regulates every aspect of biological functions. Through a three-step cascade of enzymatic action, ubiquitin is conjugated to a substrate. Because ubiquitin itself can be post-translationally modified, this small protein generates various ubiquitin codes and triggers differing regulation of biological functions. For example, ubiquitin itself can be ubiquitinated, phosphorylated, acetylated, or SUMOylated. Via the type three secretion system, some bacterial effectors also modify the ubiquitin system in host cells. This review describes the general concept of the ubiquitin system as well as the fundamental functions of ubiquitin in the regulation of cellular responses during inflammation and bacterial infection.
|Number of pages
|Proceedings of the Japan Academy Series B: Physical and Biological Sciences
|Published - 2020
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Agricultural and Biological Sciences
- General Physics and Astronomy