In this paper, we use the modified GSM TIP model to explore how the thermosphere-ionosphere system in the American longitudinal sector responded to the series of geomagnetic storms on September 9-14, 2005. Comparison of modeling results with experimental data at Millstone Hill, USA (42.6°N, 71.5°W), Ramey, Puerto Rico (18.3°N, 66.8°W) and Jicamarca, Peru (11.9°S, 76.9°W) has shown a good agreement of ionospheric disturbances in the F-region maximum height. We examine in detail the formation mechanisms of these disturbances at different latitudes and describe some of the important physical processes affecting the behavior of the F-region. In addition, we consider the propagation of thermospheric wind surge and the formation of additional layers in the low-latitude ionosphere during geomagnetic storms.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Aerospace Engineering
- Astronomy and Astrophysics
- Atmospheric Science
- Space and Planetary Science
- General Earth and Planetary Sciences