Different flooring surfaces affect infants’ crawling performance

Jeewon Choi, Takeru Ogawa, Shin Takesue, Satoshi Muraki, Youki Inoue, Hikari Abe, Emi Yamanoi

    Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

    1 Citation (Scopus)


    This study assessed the influence of different types of flooring on infants' crawling motion patterns and performance. Each participating infant (range: 8.7-12.4 months) was encouraged to crawl on a tatami mat made of woven straw as well as other flooring types such as hardwood, carpet, and joint mat. Material tests were conducted to quantify the friction and shock absorption of the flooring. A three-dimensional motion capture system was used to measure spatiotemporal and kinematic variables during hands-and-knees crawling. An increased crawling rate was associated with a faster cadence of cyclic arm movements, but not with crawling stride length. Hardwood flooring had a significantly lower crawling rate and longer duration of hand-floor contact than tatami, while the crawling stride length and range of motion of joint movements were hardly affected by flooring type. The results of this study suggest a drawback of hardwood flooring in terms of infants’ effective quadrupedal locomotion.

    Original languageEnglish
    Article number103553
    JournalApplied Ergonomics
    Publication statusPublished - Jan 2022

    All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

    • Human Factors and Ergonomics
    • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
    • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
    • Engineering (miscellaneous)


    Dive into the research topics of 'Different flooring surfaces affect infants’ crawling performance'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

    Cite this