Development of culture-sensitive clinical teacher evaluation sheet in the Japanese context

Makoto Kikukawa, Renee E. Stalmeijer, Tomoya Okubo, Kikuko Taketomi, Sei Emura, Yasushi Miyata, Motofumi Yoshida, Lambert Schuwirth, Albert J.J.A. Scherpbier

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: Many instruments for evaluating clinical teaching have been developed, albeit most in Western countries. This study aims to develop a validated cultural and local context sensitive instrument for clinical teachers in an East Asian setting (Japan), Japanese Clinical Teacher Evaluation Sheet (JaCTES). Methods: A multicenter, cross-sectional evaluation study was conducted. We collected a total of 1368 questionnaires on 304 clinical teachers, completed by residents in 16 teaching hospitals. The construct validity was examined by conducting a factor analysis and using structural equation modeling (SEM). We also assessed the reliability using generalizability analysis and decision study. Results: Exploratory factor analysis resulted in three-factor (role model, teaching activities, and accessibility) model including 18 items. Confirmatory factor analysis was performed, using SEM. The comparative fit index was 0.931 and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.087, meaning an acceptable goodness of fit for this model. To obtain a reliable dependability-coefficient of at least 0.70 or higher, 5–8 resident responses are necessary. Discussion and conclusion: JaCTES is the first reported instrument with validity evidence of content and internal structure and high feasibility in Japan, an East Asian setting. Medical educators should be aware of the local context and cultural aspects in evaluating clinical teachers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)844-850
Number of pages7
JournalMedical Teacher
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Aug 3 2017

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Education


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