Development of an action scale to show the necessity of healthcare activities

Reiko Okamoto, Yoko Hatono, Keiko Koide, Fusami Nagano, Saori Iwamoto, Emiko Kusano

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


OBJECTIVES: In order to promote high-quality healthcare activities, public health professionals such as public health nurses must improve their ability to systematically show health needs based on evidence and to lead decision making of superior officers and facility inhabitants for improved planning. This study developed and investigated its reliability and validity of an action scale to show the necessity of healthcare activities (SNH).

METHODS: The items in the SNH were originally selected based on previous studies and refined by researchers; they were subsequently adjusted after a pilot survey. The subjects were full-time public health nurses (PHNs) working at prefectural public health centers or randomly chosen municipal health centers. Questionnaires were distributed by mail. We explained the ethical considerations in writing and those who returned completed questionnaire forms were considered to have given their consent to participate in the study. The study plan was approved by the university Domestic Ethics Committee.

RESULTS: Among 1,615 questionnaire recipients, 1,088 (67.4%) responded; of these, 1,035 (64.1%) responses were valid. Nineteen of 20 items were selected based on results of item analysis, and exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses showed that the SNH consisted of four factors: show existence of health needs, show evidence for the necessity of addressing health needs, show actual conditions requiring solution, and show priority for resolution. Cronbach's alpha, an SNH reliability coefficient, was 0.948, and individual factor scores were over 0.85, supporting the internal consistency of SNH. The correlation coefficient between SNH and the three other scales including related concepts was 0.6-0.8, with significant differences between scales, supporting the criterion-related validity of SNH. The score increased with increasing PHN experience and job seniority, which were used as the known-group, with significant differences between the lowest group and the top two groups.

CONCLUSION: The results confirmed that SNH is a reliable and valid scale to show the necessity of healthcare activities.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)271-280
Number of pages10
Journal[Nihon kōshū eisei zasshi] Japanese journal of public health
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 2015
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Medicine(all)


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