Detection of interferon-γ-inducible chemokines in human milk

Yasushi Takahata, H. Takada, A. Nomura, H. Nakayama, K. Ohshima, T. Hara

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Citations (Scopus)


Aim: To assess the immunological role of human milk by analysing the concentrations of interferon-γ-inducible protein of 10 kda (IP-10) and monokine induced by interferon-γ (MIG) in human milk from mothers of preterm and term infants. Methods: IP-10 and MIG levels of colostrum, early milk, mature milk and sera were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). IP-10 and MIG mRNA expression levels in cellular components of human milk were determined by RT-PCR. IP-10 and MIG protein expression in mammary gland tissues was analysed by immunohistochemistry. Results: Significant amounts of IP-10 and MIG were detected in human milk. The concentrations of IP-10 and MIG in colostrum and early milk were significantly higher than those of sera from healthy controls or lactating mothers. These chemokine concentrations in colostrum and early milk were significantly higher than those of mature milk. Premature delivery or pregnancy complications of mothers had no significant correlation with these chemokine concentrations in breast milk. There were significant correlations between MIG and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) or IP-10 levels (p < 0.001) in human milk. Expression of IP-10 and MIG genes and proteins in the milk cells as well as in mammary gland epithelial tissues was detected by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Conclusion: IP-10 and MIG in human milk, probably derived from milk cells and mammary gland epithelial cells, may contribute to the migration and activation of intestinal T lymphocytes to enhance mucosal immunity during the early neonatal period.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)659-665
Number of pages7
JournalActa Paediatrica, International Journal of Paediatrics
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 1 2003
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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