Demonstration of a 52-GHz Bit-Parallel Multiplier Using Low-Voltage Rapid Single-Flux-Quantum Logic

Ikki Nagaoka, Koki Ishida, Masamitsu Tanaka, Kyosuke Sano, Taro Yamashita, Takatsugu Ono, Koji Inoue, Akira Fujimaki

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


A high-throughput 4 $\boldsymbol{\times }$ 4-bit multiplier was demonstrated using an extremely careful timing design for low-voltage rapid single-flux-quantum (LV-RSFQ) logic. The design considers the lengths of all wires, bias dependency of the delays, and load dependency of the signal splitters. The key is to intentionally use both Josephson transmission lines and passive transmission lines for gate-to-gate wiring, even over short distances, to form the same structure wiring as the clock lines. The structure of the multiplier is based on a bit-parallel, gate-level pipeline to exploit throughput. The test chip was fabricated using the AIST 10-kA/cm $\boldsymbol{^2}$, Nb/AlOx/Nb, 9-Nb-layer Advanced Process 2. The measured maximum operating frequency, throughput, and power consumption without cooling cost in the high-speed on-chip test were 52 GHz, 52 G-operations per second (GOPS), and 134 $\boldsymbol{\mu }$ W, respectively. Although the switching speed of the Josephson junctions was reduced by 40$\boldsymbol{\%}$ owing to the low-voltage operation, the obtained clock frequency was as high as that demonstrated with the standard bias voltage. The energy efficiency was 381 tera-operations per second per watt (TOPS/W) at 4.2 K. Further improvement in energy efficiency is expected by using low-voltage half-flux-quantum (LV-HFQ) circuits and shrinking the size of Josephson junctions.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9399257
JournalIEEE Transactions on Applied Superconductivity
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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