Deletion of Nox4 enhances remyelination following cuprizone-induced demyelination by increasing phagocytic capacity of microglia and macrophages in mice

Kei Yamanaka, Kuniyuki Nakamura, Tomoya Shibahara, Masamitsu Takashima, Hayato Takaki, Masaoki Hidaka, Motohiro Komori, Yoji Yoshikawa, Yoshinobu Wakisaka, Tetsuro Ago, Takanari Kitazono

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

NOX4 is a major reactive oxygen species-producing enzyme that modulates cell stress responses. We here examined the effect of Nox4 deletion on demyelination–remyelination, the most common pathological change in the brain. We used a model of cuprizone (CPZ)-associated demyelination–remyelination in wild-type and Nox4-deficient (Nox4−/−) mice. While the CPZ-induced demyelination in the corpus callosum after 4 weeks of CPZ intoxication was slightly less pronounced in Nox4−/− mice than that in wild-type mice, remyelination following CPZ withdrawal was significantly enhanced in Nox4−/− mice with an increased accumulation of IBA1-positive microglia/macrophages in the demyelinating corpus callosum. Consistently, locomotor function, as assessed by the beam walking test, was significantly better during the remyelination phase in Nox4−/− mice. Nox4 deletion did not affect autonomous growth of primary-culture oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Although Nox4 expression was higher in cultured macrophages than in microglia, Nox4−/− microglia and macrophages both showed enhanced phagocytic capacity of myelin debris and produced increased amounts of trophic factors upon phagocytosis. The expression of trophic factors was higher, in parallel with the accumulation of IBA1-positive cells, in the corpus callosum in Nox4−/− mice than that in wild-type mice. Nox4 deletion suppressed phagocytosis-induced increase in mitochondrial membrane potential, enhancing phagocytic capacity of macrophages. Treatment with culture medium of Nox4−/− macrophages engulfing myelin debris, but not that of Nox4−/− astrocytes, enhanced cell growth and expression of myelin-associated proteins in cultured oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Collectively, Nox4 deletion promoted remyelination after CPZ-induced demyelination by enhancing microglia/macrophage-mediated clearance of myelin debris and the production of trophic factors leading to oligodendrogenesis.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)541-559
Number of pages19
JournalGLIA
Volume71
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2023

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Neurology
  • Cellular and Molecular Neuroscience

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