Peptides have been demonstrated as potentially beneficial compounds against several life-style related diseases such as hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and atherosclerosis, among others. However, limited research has been carried out on peptide absorption, resulting in a lack of understanding and control of this process. Therefore, this review discusses the recent insights gathered on in vitro and in vivo absorption of peptides across intestinal membranes, into blood circulation. Briefly, some di-/tripeptides permeate through intestinal membranes in their intact forms via peptide transporter systems, while others are vulnerable to protease degradation. Oligopeptides (>tetrapeptides) show a lower transport ability than di-/tripeptides, possibly due to the presence of paracellular tight junctions. The hydrophobicity of peptides (log P) does not seem to influence absorption, while peptide length and degradation of peptides (and peptide sequences) by intestinal proteases may be determinant factors of the absorption process.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Food Science