CpG DNA/zymosan complex to enhance cytokine secretion owing to the cocktail effect

Takahisa Anada, Naoko Okada, Jusaku Minari, Ryouji Karinaga, Masami Mizu, Kazuya Koumoto, Seiji Shinkai, Kazuo Sakurai

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

11 Citations (Scopus)


Zymosan, classified among β-(1→3)-d-glucans, is produced from the cell wall of yeast and well known to induce proinflammatory cytokines when ingested by immune cells. We found that zymosan forms a complex with immunostimulatory CpG DNA, where both zymosan and CpG DNA can induce cytokine secretion according to the different mechanisms (i.e., recognized by different receptors). The complex activated macrophages and induced cytokine secretion, more efficiently than separate administration of zymosan or CpG DNA. Microscopic observation showed that this increment of the cytokine secretion can be explained by the fact that zymosan and zymosan/CpG DNA complex are up-taken more than naked CpG DNA. Additionally, existence of two different immunostimulants in the same cells may enhance the immunoresponse. This report presents a new strategy to construct a delivering vehicle for CpG DNA and to enhance its activity with the 'cocktail effect' of the two immunostimulants.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1301-1304
Number of pages4
JournalBioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2006
Externally publishedYes

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology
  • Pharmaceutical Science
  • Drug Discovery
  • Clinical Biochemistry
  • Organic Chemistry


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