Control of milk pH reduces biofilm formation of Bacillus licheniformis and Lactobacillus paracasei on stainless steel

Nguyen Manh Dat, Daisuke Hamanaka, Fumihiko Tanaka, Toshitaka Uchino

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Citations (Scopus)


Microbial biofilms present in dairy farms may contaminate milk during milk harvest and transfer diseases from the environment to cows. In order to reduce biofilm formation with respect to the role of pH, a study involving the control of milk pH during long-term biofilm formation of Bacillus licheniformis NBRC 12195 and Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei NBRC 15889 on stainless steel coupons in different dilutions of skim milk (0.1%, 1.0% and 5.0%) was conducted. During long incubation at 30 °C, pH decreased due to bacterial development in unadjusted samples. In pH-adjusted samples, pH was kept at around 7.0 by the addition of sterile sodium hydroxide. Biofilms formed on stainless steel coupons were daily stained by 0.1% Crystal Violet solution and assessed by the evaluation of optical density. The bacterial count of the suspensions showed that the control of pH enhanced the growth of bacteria in free-floating form. In contrast, optical densities of biofilms formed in the pH-adjusted samples were significantly lower than in the pH-unadjusted samples in all of three skim milk dilutions. Comparison of maximum OD values of adhered cells at different nutrient levels also implicated that for both tested strains, thicker biofilms were formed in milk dilutions at higher nutrient levels. These results suggested that, control of milk pH and milk residue level could significantly reduce biofilm formation of the tested bacteria.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-220
Number of pages6
JournalFood Control
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biotechnology
  • Food Science


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