We have developed a computerized method for estimating patient setup errors in portal images based on localized pelvic templates for prostate cancer radiotherapy. The patient setup errors were estimated based on a template-matching technique that compared the portal image and a localized pelvic template image with a clinical target volume produced from a digitally reconstructed radiography (DRR) image of each patient. We evaluated the proposed method by calculating the residual error between the patient setup error obtained by the proposed method and the gold standard setup error determined by consensus between two radiation oncologists. Eleven training cases with prostate cancer were used for development of the proposed method, and then we applied the method to 10 test cases as a validation test. As a result, the residual errors in the anterior-posterior, superior-inferior and left-right directions were smaller than 2 mm for the validation test. The mean residual error was 2.65 ± 1.21 mm in the Euclidean distance for training cases, and 3.10 ± 1.49 mm for the validation test. There was no statistically significant difference in the residual error between the test for training cases and the validation test (P = 0.438). The proposed method appears to be robust for detecting patient setup error in the treatment of prostate cancer radiotherapy.
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