A 68-year-old Japanese male admitted at our hospital because of further examination and therapy for liver tumors. Based on the elevated values of serum alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and PIVKA II and imaging examinations, he was diagnosed to have primary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with multiple lung metastases. After the therapy with 4 sessions of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and arterial infusion chemotherapy (TAI) for primary HCC measuring 8 cm in diameter, lung nodules were disappeared along with aprominent decrease to the normal levels of the values of serum AFP and PIVKA II. The clinical course revealed that a complete response was obtained. Although the precise mechanisms underlying this intriguing phenomenon remain unknown, thus possibilities are raised that natural regression of HCC or the necrotic change of tumor cells on the immunological effect produced by TACE/TAI.
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