Hydrogels of polymers carrying surface hydroxyl groups strongly activate the complement system through the alternative pathway, although it has also been reported that solutions of polymers do not. To address these curious, inconsistent results, we examined the effect of polymer states, either immobilized on a surface or soluble in serum, on the complement activation using a surface plasmon resonance apparatus and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We clearly showed that dextran- and poly(vinyl alcohol)-immobilized surfaces strongly activated the complement system but that soluble polymers could not, even when the amounts of the soluble polymers added to serum were 4-2000 times higher than those on the polymer-immobilized surfaces.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- General Materials Science