Comparison of static and dynamic knee kinematics during squatting

S. Mu, T. Moro-Oka, P. Johal, S. Hamai, M. A.R. Freeman, S. A. Banks

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Background: There long has been debate whether static knee kinematics measured using magnetic resonance imaging are the same as knee kinematics in dynamic weight-bearing motion. Magnetic resonance imaging provides excellent volumetric detail but is static. Fluoroscopic imaging provides for dynamic observation of knee kinematics but provides no direct observation of the soft-tissue structures. We attempted to answer the question 'Are knee kinematics the same during static and dynamic squatting?' Methods: Knee kinematics data from two previously reported studies of healthy knee kinematics during squatting from 0° to 120° were obtained. The results of the dynamic fluoroscopic study were reformatted to perform a direct comparison of femoral anteroposterior translation and internal-external rotation with the static magnetic resonance imaging study. Findings: Comparison of internal-external rotations and lateral femoral condyle anteroposterior translations did not reveal significant differences between static and dynamic data. The medial femoral condyle demonstrated 0 (SD = 3) mm posterior translation during dynamic squatting from 0° to 120° flexion compared to 5 (SD = 3) mm posterior translation during static squatting (P = 0.01, Cohen's d = 1.7). Interpretation: For squatting types of motions, static and dynamic study protocols appear to produce equivalent knee kinematics with no functionally important differences. Differences in medial condyle translations can be attributed to differences in foot position during the study. Investigators can choose the modality that best fits their goals and resources with the knowledge that the results for squatting activities are comparable.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)106-108
Number of pages3
JournalClinical Biomechanics
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2011

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Biophysics
  • Orthopedics and Sports Medicine


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