Co-amorphous formation of piroxicam-citric acid to generate supersaturation and improve skin permeation

Yuya Hirakawa, Hiroshi Ueda, Yusuke Takata, Kosuke Minamihata, Rie Wakabayashi, Noriho Kamiya, Masahiro Goto

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29 Citations (Scopus)


The objective of this study was to prepare a co-amorphous formulation of piroxicam (PIR), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, and citric acid (CA), and evaluate its skin permeation ability. A spray-drying method was employed to prepare the co-amorphous formulation and its physical properties were characterized. X-ray powder diffraction and thermal analysis confirmed a homogeneous amorphous state, and the infrared spectra revealed intermolecular interactions between PIR and CA, suggesting formation of a co-amorphous formulation of PIR and CA. The PIR-CA co-amorphous formulation exhibited no crystallization for 60 days at 4/25/40°C with silica gel. The PIR-CA co-amorphous formulation increased the solubility of PIR in polyethylene glycol 400 compared with that of the pure drug, and physical mixture (PM) of PIR and CA, confirming a supersaturated state in the formulation. The PIR-CA co-amorphous formulation demonstrated higher skin permeation than PIR alone or PM of PIR and CA, and the flux value was consistent with the degree of saturation. Thus, the increase in the skin permeation of PIR from the PIR-CA co-amorphous formulation directly depended on the increased thermodynamic activity by supersaturation in the absence of interactions between the drug and co-former in the vehicle.

Original languageEnglish
Article number105667
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Publication statusPublished - Mar 1 2021

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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