Fostamatinib is the first approved spleen tyrosine kinase inhibitor for chronic immune thrombocytopenia. This review summarizes the clinical development, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug–drug interactions, adverse events, and comprehensive analyses of fostamatinib. While integrating these findings, we discuss the fostering and improvement of fostamatinib for further clinical applications. Fostamatinib is designed as a prodrug and cleavage of its active moiety R406 in the intestine. As R406 is the major product in the blood, this review mainly discusses the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of R406. It is metabolized by cytochrome 3A4 and UGT1A9 in the liver and is dominantly excreted in feces after anaerobic modification by the gut microbiota. As fostamatinib and R406 strongly inhibit the breast cancer resistance protein, the interaction with those substrates, particularly statins, should be carefully monitored. In patients with immune thrombocytopenia, fostamatinib administration started at 100 mg twice daily, and most patients increased to 150 mg twice daily in the clinical trial. Although responders showed a higher R406 concentration than non-responders, the correlation between R406 exposure and achievement of the platelet count as a pharmacodynamic marker was uncertain in the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis. Additionally, R406 concentration was almost halved in patients with a heavy body weight; hence, the exposure-efficacy study for suitable dosing should be continued with post-marketing data. In contrast, the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis for exposure safety revealed that R406 exposure significantly correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Even though the influence of elevated exposure on other toxicities, including diarrhea and neutropenia, is still unclear, careful management is required with dose escalation to avoid toxicity-related discontinuation.
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Pharmacology (medical)