TY - JOUR

T1 - Classicality condition on a system observable in a quantum measurement and a relative-entropy conservation law

AU - Kuramochi, Yui

AU - Ueda, Masahito

N1 - Publisher Copyright:
© 2015 American Physical Society.

PY - 2015/3/16

Y1 - 2015/3/16

N2 - We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y, i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999)JPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

AB - We consider the information flow on a system observable X corresponding to a positive-operator-valued measure under a quantum measurement process Y described by a completely positive instrument from the viewpoint of the relative entropy. We establish a sufficient condition for the relative-entropy conservation law which states that the average decrease in the relative entropy of the system observable X equals the relative entropy of the measurement outcome of Y, i.e., the information gain due to measurement. This sufficient condition is interpreted as an assumption of classicality in the sense that there exists a sufficient statistic in a joint successive measurement of Y followed by X such that the probability distribution of the statistic coincides with that of a single measurement of X for the premeasurement state. We show that in the case when X is a discrete projection-valued measure and Y is discrete, the classicality condition is equivalent to the relative-entropy conservation for arbitrary states. The general theory on the relative-entropy conservation is applied to typical quantum measurement models, namely, quantum nondemolition measurement, destructive sharp measurements on two-level systems, a photon counting, a quantum counting, homodyne and heterodyne measurements. These examples except for the nondemolition and photon-counting measurements do not satisfy the known Shannon-entropy conservation law proposed by Ban [M. Ban, J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 32, 1643 (1999)JPHAC50305-447010.1088/0305-4470/32/9/012], implying that our approach based on the relative entropy is applicable to a wider class of quantum measurements.

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U2 - 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032110

DO - 10.1103/PhysRevA.91.032110

M3 - Article

AN - SCOPUS:84927519337

SN - 1050-2947

VL - 91

JO - Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

JF - Physical Review A - Atomic, Molecular, and Optical Physics

IS - 3

M1 - 032110

ER -