Circulation and Tides in a Cooler Upper Atmosphere: Dynamical Effects of CO2 Doubling

Huixin Liu, Chihiro Tao, Hidekatsu Jin, Yusuke Nakamoto

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11 Citations (Scopus)


Thermosphere cooling is a known effect of increasing CO2 in the atmosphere. In this study, we explore the changes of thermosphere circulation and tides in the cooled thermosphere via a doubled CO2 numerical experiment using the Ground-to-topside Atmosphere Ionosphere model for Aeronomy (GAIA). The results reveal three major features. (1) The thermosphere cools about 10 K more around solstices than equinoxes, more at the summer pole than the winter pole. (2) The meridional circulation shifts downward and strongly accelerates by 5–15 m s−1. (3) The tidal activity experiences dramatic changes, with a 40–60% reduction in the semidiurnal tides (SW2) throughout the thermosphere but an 30–50% enhancement in diurnal tides (DW1) below 200 km altitude. The nonmigrating tide DE3 has only minor changes. These changes in temperature, meridional circulation, and tides are persistent features in all seasons and can profoundly affect the spatial distribution and diurnal cycles of the ionospheric responses to CO2 doubling via atmosphere composition and electrodynamics.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere2020GL087413
JournalGeophysical Research Letters
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - May 28 2020

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Geophysics
  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)


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