Chromatin remodeling is a dynamic alteration of chromatin structure that regulates several important biological processes. It is brought about by enzymatic activities that catalyze covalent modifications of histone tail or movement of nucleosomes along the DNA, and these activities often require multisubunit protein complexes for its proper functions. In concert with DNA methylation and noncoding RNA-mediated processes, histone modification such as acetylation and methylation regulates gene expression epigenetically, without affecting DNA sequence. Recent advances have revealed that this intrinsic regulation, together with protein complexes such as RE1 silencer of transcription/neuron-restrictive silencer factor (REST/NRSF) and switch/sucrose nonfermentable (SWI/SNF), play critical roles in neural stem cell fate determination.
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