We investigated the protein kinases responsible for myosin regulatory light chain (LC20) phosphorylation and regulation of myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) activity during microcystin (phosphatase inhibitor)-induced contraction at low Ca2+ concentrations of rat ileal smooth muscle stretched in the longitudinal axis. Application of 1 μM microcystin induced LC20 diphosphorylation and contraction of β-escin-permeabilized rat ileal smooth muscle at pCa 9. The PKC inhibitor GF-109203x, the MEK inhibitor PD-98059, and the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB-203580 significantly reduced this contraction. These inhibitory effects were abolished when the microcystin concentration was increased to 10 μM, indicating that application of these kinase inhibitors generated an increase in MLCP activity. GF-109203x and PD-98059, but not SB-203580, significantly decreased the phosphorylation level of the myosin-targeting subunit of MLCP, MYPT1, at Thr-697 (rat sequence) during microcystin-induced contraction at pCa 9. On the other hand, SB-203580, but not GF-109203x or PD-98059, significantly reduced the phosphorylation level of the PKC-potentiated phosphatase inhibitor of 17 kDa (CPI-17). A zipper-interacting protein kinase (ZIPK) inhibitor (SM1 peptide) and a Rho-associated kinase inhibitor (Y-27632) had little effect on microcystin-induced contraction at pCa 9. In conclusion, PKC, ERK1/2, and p38 MAPK pathways facilitate microcystin-induced contraction at low Ca2+ concentrations by contributing to the inhibition of MLCP activity either through phosphorylation of MYPT1 or CPI-17 [probably mediated by integrin-linked kinase (ILK)]. ILK and not ZIPK is likely to be the protein kinase responsible for LC20 diphosphorylation during microcystin-induced contraction of rat ileal smooth muscle at pCa 9, similar to its recently described role in vascular smooth muscle. The negative regulation of MLCP by PKC and MAPKs during microcystin-induced contraction at pCa 9, which is not observed in vascular smooth muscle, may be unique to phasic smooth muscle.
|Journal||American Journal of Physiology - Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology|
|Publication status||Published - Oct 2007|
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Physiology (medical)