OBJECTIVE: Although patients with autoimmune pancreatitis (AIP) tend to have concurrent diverse disorders, very few studies have focused on diabetes mellitus (DM) coexisting with AIP. METHODS: In total 102 AIP patients with DM were divided into three groups. Those with DM before the onset of AIP were labeled group A (n=35), those who developed DM and AIP simultaneously were labeled group B (n=58) and those who developed DM after steroid therapy for AIP were labeled group C (n=9). The characteristics of DM among the three groups were evaluated. RESULTS: No significant differences were noted in the age of DM onset among the three groups. However, the mean duration of DM was significantly longer in group A (8.7 years) than in groups B and C. AIP developed 6.8 years after DM onset in group A, whereas it developed 1.8 years after steroid therapy in group C. Group A had the highest rate (25.7%) of family members with a history of AIP. Levels of serum albumin, total cholesterol and triglyceride were significantly lower in group A. No correlations were found between glycated hemoglobin and benzoyl-tyrosyl para-aminobenzoic acid. Hypoglycemia was observed in 20% of patients under insulin therapy. Most of them were habitual drinkers and received no pancreatic enzymes. Group A showed a high prevalence of retinopathy, nephropathy and macrovascular disorders than group B. CONCLUSION: Aspects of AIP-associated pancreatic diabetes were clarified. AIP-associated DM must be controlled by a full assessment of the pancreatic endocrine and exocrine function.
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