Changes in surface characteristics of anodized Titanium arising from water immersion

Zhao Xiang Chen, Wen Xue Wang, Yoshihiro Takao, Terutake Matsubara, Li Mei Ren

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Titanium surface is usually modified using a spark anodizing technique for biomedical application, and the resultant anodic TiO2 layer on the surface plays a crucial role in promoting the favorable biologic response. However, despite the fundamental importance of anodic TiO2 layer, little is known about its long-term stability or changes in vivo. In this study, as a first step to elucidate the surface changes of anodized titanium in vivo, changes in surface characteristics of anodic TiO2 layer arising from water immersion at 37 °C were investigated. It was found that after water immersion for 1 week, numerous nanoparticles emerged on the surface of anodized titanium fabricated at a voltage of 200 V, and with the further increase of immersion time, more nanopartiles formed and interconnected with each other, resulting in a nanostructured surface layer. Transmission electron microscopy investigation of anodic TiO2 layer before and after water immersion indicated that water immersion transformed the originally amorphous TiO 2 layer into crystalline anatase gradually, and the lap-shear test of oxide layers demonstrated the decreased shear strength with water immersion. In addition, it was found that the increased anodization voltage led to the anodic TiO2 layer with better stability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)415-420
Number of pages6
JournalFuntai Oyobi Fummatsu Yakin/Journal of the Japan Society of Powder and Powder Metallurgy
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2012

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Metals and Alloys
  • Materials Chemistry


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