D-Serine is known to be essential for the activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the excitation of glutamatergic neurons, which have critical roles in long-term potentiation and memory formation. D-Serine is also thought to be involved in NMDA receptor-mediated neurotoxicity. The deletion of serine racemase (SRR), which synthesizes D-serine from L-serine, was recently reported to improve ischemic damage in mouse middle cerebral artery occlusion model. However, the cell type in which this phenomenon originates and the regulatory mechanism for D-/L-serine remain elusive. The D-/L-serine content in ischemic brain increased until 20 hours after recanalization and then leveled off gradually. The results of in vitro experiments using cultured cells suggested that D-serine is derived from neurons, while L-serine seems to be released from astroglia. Immunohistochemistry studies of brain tissue after cerebral ischemia showed that SRR is expressed in neurons, and 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (3-PGDH), which synthesizes L-serine from 3-phosphoglycerate, is located in astrocytes, supporting the results of the in vitro experiments. A western blot analysis showed that neither SRR nor 3-PGDH was upregulated after cerebral ischemia. Therefore, the increase in D-/L-serine was not related to an increase in SRR or 3-PGDH, but to an increase in the substrates of SRR and 3-PGDH.
|Number of pages
|Journal of cerebral blood flow and metabolism : official journal of the International Society of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
|Published - Dec 1 2014
All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes
- Clinical Neurology
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine