Can occlusal evaluation of children with unilateral cleft lip and palate help determine future maxillofacial morphology?

Akira Suzuki, Masaaki Sasaguri, Kenji Hiura, Atsushi Yasunaga, Takeshi Mitsuyasu, Yasutaka Kubota, Tomohiro Ninomiya, Yasuharu Takenoshita

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Citations (Scopus)


Objective: To investigate the change in occlusal evaluations from the 5-year-olds' index to the Goslon Yardstick and to compare the relationship between the evaluations and maxillofacial growth in patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP).

Design: A prospective longitudinal study.

Subjects: The sample consisted of 85 patients with complete UCLP who underwent surgery from 1969 to 1994 and were treated at the Kyushu University Hospital in Fukuoka, Japan. Subjects had two serial dental casts performed at the ages of 5 and 10 years. Furthermore, each patient had lateral cephalographs taken at the age of 5 years, 76 of 85 subjects had films taken at the age of 10 years, and 54 subjects also had lateral cephalograms taken after the age of 15 years.

Methods: Every dental cast was evaluated by the 5-year-olds' index and the Goslon Yardstick, respectively. The lateral cephalographs were traced and digitized, and angular dimensions were calculated. Outcomes were compared using Spearman's rank-order correlation analysis and the Kruskal-Wallis analysis.

Results and Conclusion: Dental arch relationships were evaluated and rated as 2.96 in the 5- year-olds' index and 2.85 in the Goslon Yardstick, respectively. Both groupings showed a significant relationship, and they showed no change in 36 out of 85 subjects (42.3%), significant improvement in 30 (35.3%), and deterioration in 19 (22.3%). Two occlusal groupings and maxillofacial morphology on the cephalographs indicated that the grouping reflected the anteroposterior position of the mandible. Moreover, both groupings showed some relation to previous maxillofacial growth, but they did not show any relationship with future growth. The Goslon Yardstick may not predict maxillofacial morphology in adulthood.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)696-706
Number of pages11
JournalCleft Palate-Craniofacial Journal
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Nov 1 2014

All Science Journal Classification (ASJC) codes

  • Oral Surgery
  • Otorhinolaryngology


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