The craniofacial region contains many specified tissues including bone, cartilage, muscle, blood vessels and neurons. Defect or dysfunction of the craniofacial tissue after post-cancer ablative surgery, trauma, congenital malformations and progressive deforming skeletal diseases has a huge influence on the patient's life. Therefore, functional reconstruction of damaged tissues is highly expected. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMMSCs) are one of the most well characterized postnatal stem cell populations, and considered to be utilized for cell-based clinical therapies. Here, the current understanding and the potential applications in craniofacial tissue regeneration of BMMSCs are reviewed, and the current limitations and drawbacks are also discussed.
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